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Artigos em revistas ► internacionais com arbitragem

 

Referência Bibliográfica


PENSA, A., CAS, R., GIORDANO, G., PORRECA, M., WALLENSTEIN, N. (2015) - Transition from steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column: the VEI 5, 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption, São Miguel, Azores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 305: 1-18.

Resumo


​The 4.6 ka Fogo A trachytic Plinian eruption on São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal, is composed by four main phases: 1) Initial phreatomagmatic activity which emplaced thin surge deposits with accretionary lapilli; 2) fully buoyant steady Plinian activity which generated a prominent trachytic basal fall-out deposit; 3) partial collapsing activity, which led to the emplacement of two trachytic–trachydacitic intra-plinian ignimbrites (pink and black ignimbrites) and associated surge deposits, inter-stratified within two fall-out deposits; 4) vent widening and fully collapsing activity which caused the emplacement of the climactic brown trachydacitic ignimbrite. The deposits of these four main phases have been organised into three members FGA1, FGA2 and FGA3, sub-divided into 15 stratigraphic or emplacement units. The fluctuations from a steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column parallel the change in composition of the magma from trachytic to trachydacitic. Although minimal, the change in composition resulted in a marked change in colour ofthe juvenile clasts fromwhite at the base (first phase) to pink and light-dark grey bandedand black (second and third phases) and to dark brown (fourth phase). Density analysis ofjuvenile clasts revealed that the change in composition did not significantly affect the density ofthe juvenile pumice pyroclasts, the vesicularity ofwhich increases from70% to 85% up through the sequence. The pink and the black intra-plinian ignimbriteswere emplaced only,within the narrowpaleo-valleys ofthe southern flank with maximum thicknesses of 9m and 5m respectively, transitioning onto adjacent topographic highs where thin veneer surge layers were deposited. The fall-out deposits inter- bedded between the ignimbrites lack basal reverse grading, indicating that the eruption column continued to be sustained during the partial collapses generating the intra-plinian ignimbrites. The climactic dark brown ignimbrite was emplaced radially with a maximum thickness of >40 m. The absence ofoxidation surfaces or ev- idence of reworking within the Fogo A deposits, indicates that there were no time breaks during the different phases of the eruption. The on-land bulk volume of the three ignimbrites has been estimated around 3.2 km3, while the volume of the intra-plinian fall-out deposits is ~0.003 km3. These bulk volume estimations, summed with the basal fall-out volume calculated by Walker and Croasdale (1970), makes a total bulk volume for the Fogo A deposits of 4.4 km3 indicating a Volcanic Explosively Index of 5, higher than previously estimated. This result is fundamental for the forecasting a possible scenario for a future eruption.

Observações


Anexos